China is one of the biggest countries in the world. China borders 14 nations(more than any other country, except of Russia). Here are the most important from them: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, North Korea. It’s surrounded by Yellow, Western-Chinese and Eastern Chinese seas on the East. A lot of islands are situated next to it shores. The biggest of them are Taiwan and Hainan. Administratively the whole Chinese territory is divided into 22 provinces, 3 independent regions and 3 cities. Territory of China contains classical plains, alluvial plains, hills and low mountain range. The two biggest Chinese river are the Yellow river and Yangze river. Although a part of the Amur river lies in Chinese borders, it works, basically, as a border between China and Russia, which makes it difficult for navigation. The best known Chinese desert – the Gobi desert – isn’t stable. Every year China looses 1 000 000 acres, due to desertification.
Flora and fauna
The eastern part of China is famous for its wildlife diverse. There are more than 25 000 kinds of plants and about 3000 kinds of vertebrate animals(about 300 of mammals). However, forests in China are quite rear, but often can be found in mountains, where people haven’t grew rice. Basic plant districts: coniferous taiga next to Amur, subtropical evergreen forests next to Yangze and tropical forests of Yellow river. Chinese fauna is famous for its giant panda, Manchurian hare and raccoon-like dog(the most famous Chinese endemics).
China is a country with the largest population in the world(1,338,612,968 human beings). In those 1,3 billions there are 95 % of Han people and 5 % of other 50 nationalities(or 55 different ethnic groups – 2009 PRC). Now the country has a period of rapid urbanization – cities grew more than 10 % during the last 3 years. Also it’s a famous fact that Chinese government is quite strict with its family planning policy – Chinese are allowede to have only 1 child/family. This policy is resisted greatly in rural areas, where a lot of people(males, actually) are needed for any agricultural labour.
|Leading Urban Centers of the People’s Republic of China|
|2008 Estimated – suburban and rural area excluded on urban population From Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China_by_population, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolitan_regions_of_China http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China#Population_policy|
Chinese-Russian relationships are now quite stable in comparison with, for example, Chinese-American relationships. One of the main aspects in Ch.-Rus. relationships is a big amount of Chinese emigrants, who tries to cross the border illegally. All the border clashes, which were extremely important in the 20th c. are now settled. One of the basic problem of Chinese foreign policy is the Taiwan Question. Russian president said that Russia support Chinese point of view. Japan and USA are against China and declared that the Taiwan Question can’t be worked out with military forces. Also China and Japan both have interest in Russian gas and oil, which made the dialogue between the two governments difficult.