Chart: Causes of WWI

blog-chart

Collaborate with your partner. Design a chart on the causes of WW I.

Use timeline and insert examples from historical events.

Use model from Guide (58).

Chart: causes of WW I

  1. In 1871, Bismarck unifies the German states.

The formation of the Dreikeiserbund in 1873 between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. Great Powers making alliances in case of war.

The Congress of Berlin in 1878, where Bismarck played the ‘Honest Broker’ resettled the Treaty of San Stefano. This now took away Russia’s gains from San Stefano, Bulgaria was divided into 3 parts, coastline part and Macedonia were returned to Ottoman empire. Austria-Hungary takes firm control of Bosnia-Herzegovina and jointly occupying the Sanjak of Novibazar together with the Ottoman Empire. Humiliated Russia was frustrated with Bismarck and the British.

1881 – Austria-Hungarian alliance with Serbia

1881 – Renewal of Dreikaiserbund (military treaty)

1882 – Austria-Hungarian alliance with Romania

In 1882, the Triple Alliance was formed: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Italy’s joining was good for Germany, as they both were against France. This was also more of a military alliance.

The Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 was the secret alliance between Russia and Germany, where both would maintain neutrality in case Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria-Hungary.

  1. Bismarck was in office from 1870 to1890, and during that time period, he tried to keep peace in Europe. He also tried to keep France isolated and Germany in the middle of the balance of power.In 1890, Wilhelm II kicked Bismarck out of the office, introduced Weltpolitik as the foreign policy and let the German-Russian Treaty overlap. His actions were not clear to many Great Powers, which produced many tensions and uncertainties between allies and enemies.
  2. In 1875, British Disraeli buys shares for Suez Canal. 1882: British occupation of Egypt (Suez Canal)

1884 – Germany agrees to protect Namibia (becomes German colony) Togo, Cameroon (business purposes) Bismarck: does not wish to colonize, just protect business establishments.

1884-85 – Partition of West Africa decided peacefully by European Powers at West Africa Conference in Berlin

In 1885, Germany colonized Tanzania and New Guinea

1911 – Italy succeeds in Libya

Hannah Fyfe

WWI Causes

 

Long-term, Short-term, Immediate causes (1870 – 1923) Evidence (CDs)
European diplomacy and the changing balance of power after 1870
  1. In 1871, Bismarck unifies the German states.
  2. The formation of the Dreikeiserbund in 1873 between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. Great Powers making alliances in case of war.
  3. The Congress of Berlin in 1878, where Bismarck played the ‘Honest Broker’ resettled the Treaty of San Stefano. This now took away Russia’s gains from San Stefano, Bulgaria was divided into 3 parts, coastline part and Macedonia were returned to Ottoman empire. Austria-Hungary takes firm control of Bosnia-Herzegovina and jointly occupying the Sanjak of Novibazar together with the Ottoman Empire. Humiliated Russia was frustrated with Bismarck and the British.
  4. 1881 – Austria-Hungarian alliance with Serbia
  5. 1881 – Renewal of Dreikaiserbund (military treaty)
  6. 1882 – Austria-Hungarian alliance with Romania
  7. In 1882, the Triple Alliance was formed: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Italy’s joining was good for Germany, as they both were against France. This was also more of a military alliance.
  8. The Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 was the secret alliance between Russia and Germany, where both would maintain neutrality in case Germany attacks France or Russia attacks Austria-Hungary.
Aims, methods, change, continuity, in German policy to 1914
  1. Bismarck was in office from 1870 to1890, and during that time period, he tried to keep peace in Europe. He also tried to keep France isolated and Germany in the middle of the balance of power.
  2. In 1890, Wilhelm II kicked Bismarck out of the office, introduced Weltpolitik as the foreign policy and let the German-Russian Treaty overlap. His actions were not clear to many Great Powers, which produced many tensions and uncertainties between allies and enemies.
Colonial Rivalry
  1. In 1875, British Disraeli buys shares for Suez Canal.
  2. 1882: British occupation of Egypt (Suez Canal)
  3. 1884 – Germany agrees to protect Namibia (becomes German colony) Togo, Cameroon (business purposes) Bismarck: does not wish to colonize, just protect business establishments.
  4. 1884-85 – Partition of West Africa decided peacefully by European Powers at West Africa Conference in Berlin
  5. In 1885, Germany colonized Tanzania and New Guinea
  6. 1911 – Italy succeeds in Libya
Alliance system Relative importance of:
Decline of the Ottoman Empire

 

Austria Hungary and Balkan nationalism

  1. 1875-78 – Eastern Crisis
  2. 1876 – Serbia vs. Turkey (seeks Russian support, Russia says: western Balkans are under Austria’s influence not Russia’s)
  3. 1877 – Russia declares war on Turkey – fighting over Bulgaria, lasting until 78, where Russia wins, and declares the treaty of San Stefano.
  4. 1878 – Treaty of San Stefano (large independent state of Bulgaria, but, had to be administered by Russia, in exchange for access to Bulgaria’s coast-line, also, Russia took access to Danube from Romania, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro = recognized as independent)
    Russia received land in Georgia and Armenia, as well as access of the Dardanelles (only this sea access was taken away from Russia in the Berlin treaty).
  5. Serbia resents Austrian influence in Bosnia Herzegovina because Serbia wanted that land.
Arms Race
  1. 1897 – Weltpolitik – ‘world policy’ German industrial expansion was so dependent on imports of raw materials from oversees that a vast colonial empire was required with a large navy to support it. Thus Weltpolitik was a programme of naval expansion and heavy involvement in colonial affairs (by way of justification to match UK’s force, and increase support for authoritarian rule). Germany’s unsuccessful and expansive colonization coupled with the financial expansion into the Middle East and the build up of its navy will lead other European states to fear its neighbor and question its motives.  Create tension between the Triple Entente (England, France, Russia) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy)
  2. 1898 – Naval Bill (Germany begins to develop naval power)
  3. 1906 – UK release HMS Dreadnought – bigger, better than others = suspicion and distrust amongst all of Europe, if UK and Germany are built. (Biggy gunboat, “got more than you!”)
  4. 1907-10 – British naval expenditure increased from 31.5 to 50 million quid per annum to compete with German expansion
  5. 1908-10 – Anglo-German arms race climaxed, causing international tension.
International and diplomatic crises I don’t really understand the diplomatic crises – are these the wars, and failed alliances because Bismark is no longer in power? I know that failure in diplomacy is one of the possible causes of WWI, but are these general? Or more specific?

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